By Elisabeth Raisson
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Additional resources for 60-Second French Grammar Workout: 140 Speed Tests to Boost Your Fluency
They frequently modify adjectives, like particularly in a particularly intelligent person, or whole sentences, like unfortunately in Unfortunately they could not come. Adverb tends to be a ragbag category in traditional grammar, with many words which do not ﬁt obviously into other categories being classiﬁed as adverbs. Adverbs are not always marked morphologically: not in She did not look up is classiﬁed as an adverb, and the up may also be classiﬁed as an adverb in some sources (see below under particle).
The other abbreviatory convention to mention brieﬂy is the rather informal use of the asterisk after an element to show that it may be repeated. This is found most often in syntactic rules, where a given NP may include an indeﬁnite number of adjectives, or where a given sentence may include an indeﬁnite number of prepositional phrases. A rule such as (8) illustrates both these conventions. (8) NP → (Num) (AP*) N (PP) (8) states that an NP must contain an N and may also contain a number, one or more adjective phrases and, following the noun, a prepositional phrase.
If a particular rule has no environment stated, it applies on every occasion when the input condition is met. Thus (2a) as stated says that every [r] becomes [z]. THE LINGUISTICS STUDENT’S HANDBOOK 36 The underscore, often termed the , shows the position in which the aﬀected element has to be for the change described by the rule to take place. Consider the examples in (4), where, as is customary, C indicates ‘any consonant’, V indicates ‘any vowel’ and # indicates a boundary (the precise nature of the boundary need not concern us in detail just yet).