Download A Grammar of Kham (Cambridge Grammatical Descriptions) by David E. Watters PDF

By David E. Watters

It is a complete grammatical documentation of Kham, a formerly undescribed language from west-central Nepal, belonging to the Tibeto-Burman language kin. The language has an strange constitution, containing a couple of features which are of quick relevance to present paintings on linguistic concept, together with cut up ergativity and its demonstrative procedure. Its verb morphology has implications for the certainty of the heritage of the complete Tibeto-Burman relatives. The publication, in line with vast fieldwork, presents copious examples during the exposition. it will likely be a invaluable source for typologists and common linguists alike.

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A non-restrictive order for modification in NPs, a kind of appositive, also occurs in which the order of all constituents but DemN and GN are reversed to NNum, NA, and NRel. 4 Grammatical roles Unlike what is reported for some TB languages, the grammatical roles ‘subject’ and ‘object’ are well motivated in Kham. In unmarked declarative clauses, S and A (usually agents, but not always) are grouped together and form the pivot for syntactic operations like clause chaining and subordination. Though in normal, running discourse, the NP associated with S and A is usually missing, it is obligatorily indexed in the verb for person and number (as is the O argument).

Morphology Kham is highly agglutinative with a rich morphology. Nouns are inflected for a single prefixal position (possession or, with a few nouns, a classifier numeral), and several suffix positions, most of which are instantiated by local case markers – locative, adessive, inessive, superessive, cisative, allative, ablative, elative, delative, comparative, lative, orientative, and comitative. In addition, nouns are marked for three numbers, as well as for certain grammatical cases – ergative, instrumental, genitive, primary object, and associative.

6 Kham and its dialects 13 Takale Takale Sheral Ghumilbangi Garkhanyel Koral Nakhale Figure 2. 1 Intelligibility levels At a purely lexical level, based on cognate counts from the Swadesh 100 word list, the similarity between the major branches of Kham is about 85 to 90 percent; enough, it would seem, to insure high levels of intelligibility between them. The count between Takale and Gamale, for example, is 92 percent. Remove loan words and the count goes even higher – up to 96 percent. The striking fact in light of these figures is that the inherent intelligibility levels between the Takale and Gamale dialects should be so low – somewhere in the mid 30 percent range.

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