By W. Tatarkiewicz
The background of aesthetics, just like the histories of different sciences, will be taken care of in a two-fold demeanour: because the background of the boys who created the sector of analysis, or because the heritage of the questions which have been raised and resolved during its pursuit. the sooner background of Aesthetics (3 volumes, 1960-68, English-language version 1970-74) by means of the writer of the current publication was once a heritage of fellows, of writers and artists who in centuries earlier have spoken up pertaining to attractiveness and artwork, shape and crea tivity. the current ebook returns to an analogous topic, yet treats it another way: because the heritage of aesthetic questions, innovations, theories. the problem of the 2 books, the former and the current, is partly a similar; yet simply partially: for the sooner e-book ended with the seventeenth century, whereas the current one brings the topic as much as our personal occasions. And from the 18th century to the twentieth a lot occurred in aesthetics; it was once simply in that interval that aesthetics accomplished reputation as a separate technological know-how, obtained a reputation of its personal, and produced theories that early students and artists had by no means dreamed of.
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Until at last a change did come: it was a result partly of a profounder analysis of the concept, and partly of the evolution which the arts themselves had undergone during this time. They ceased to fit the old concept. art, to correspond to its initial definition. IV. NEW DISPUTES OVER THE SCOPE OF ART The denotation of art varied considerably throughout the ages. The concept, as we have seen, first included and then excluded crafts and certain sciences; conversely, it first excluded and then included poetry.
It is certain that art is a human activity, not a product of nature. It is, moreover, a conscious activity, not a reflex or a work of chance; quite obviously, a beautiful design obtained by throwing a wet sponge against a wall (to use Leonardo's example) will not be a work of art. In this way art is easily separated from nature, and the genus of the definition is not in doubt. The difficulty is to separate art from other human activities, from other forms of culture, and to find what properties are possessed only by art.
Rieser's formula, the first shape man's environment, the second express his inner life. e. feelings of delight or rapture, others act differently - they may be moving, or striking, or shocking, that is, they produce effects which are very much unlike delight or rapture. From the point of view of the products themselves and their relation to reality: A great many works of art are reproductions of reality, but others create abstract forms. The former give a certain permanence to what is, the latter construct what is not.