By Jurg Andreas Stuckelberger
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Extra resources for A Weighted-graph Optimization Approach for Automatic Location of Forest Road Networks
Nevertheless, on a digital elevation model (DEM), values for slope gradient may also be negative. 3) Acut = Af ill = fshr = CHAPTER 1. 9. Cut-slope and ﬁll-slope angles (φcut and φf ill ) had to be greater than ground slope (η) because of geometrical constraints. Here, we examined three diﬀerent cases in terms of variable a (Eqs. 6): (1) ﬁll-slope angles larger than cut-slope angles, (2) cut-slope angles greater than ﬁll-slope angles, and (3) ﬁll-slope angles equal to cut-slope angles. In the ﬁrst case, the resulting value was less than zero (a < 0).
During the ﬁeld survey and detailed planning, the vertical road alignment must then be adjusted so that the average road gradient does not exceed nmax . Although some links may have a gradient above the maximum allowable limit, it is unlikely that the overall gradient between the start-terminal and the end-terminal will be larger than the allowable gradient due to a small tolerance. With this relaxation rule it is possible to ﬁnd centerlines that use, on average, nearly the entire capacity of the maximum road gradient.
Scenario I assumed a route independent cost of 240 CHF m . Therefore the variability is zero, resulting in a vertical straight line of cumulated frequency curve. 9 ) (Tab. 4). The cumulated frequency curve represents more or less the distribution of the slope gradients in the project area. 4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 35 Scenario III represents a cost estimating procedure that considers terrain, slope, and diﬀerent road types resulted in a cumulative frequency curve with median cost of about 240 CHF m and a .