By edited by H. Usui and Y. Omura.
This can be a choice of prolonged lecture notes of the tutorials given on the overseas institution for house Simulations (ISSS)-7, March 2005, by means of the invited teachers who've been actively taken with laptop simulation options in area plasma physics.
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Redistribution toward the boundaries of the velocity space) accumulates plasma near the velocity space boundary causing growing gradients. This is especially crucial in multidimensional applications where the velocity space is technically limited to only a few thermal velocities. The accumulation results in a non-physical charge separation and electric field generation which finally causes the field solver explode. To avoid such problems one can introduce an appropriate, not too small, not too large, amount of dissipation ∂ f /∂t = ν∂ n f /∂v n with n = 4, 6, 8 near the boundary.
From Elkina and B¨uchner (2006). evolution of the electron distribution function, spatially averaged over the whole spatial simulation domain L x , is shown in Fig. 5. As can see in Fig. 5 for the physical parameters given by Eq. (42) the ion-acoustic instability leads to a considerable deformation of the drift-electron distribution after about tω pe = 150. The reason is that the IA waves obtained energy from the drifting electron distribution and transferred it to the ions via resonant interaction of the fluctuating electric field with the particles.
However, there are a number of regimes where the standard PIC approach of representing the total distribution function with particles leads to statistical uncertainty and masking of the physical effects due to noise arising from particle discreteness. , 1990) has been advancing to the point where one and two dimensional electrostatic and magnetostatic simulations are possible. These are noiseless simulations where the main numerical issue is the accuracy of the representation of small scales on the phase space grid, which is problematic in a high dimensional phase space.