By David G. Andrews
A quantitative creation to the Earth's surroundings for intermediate-advanced undergraduate and graduate scholars, with an emphasis on underlying actual ideas. This version has been introduced thoroughly updated, and now contains a new bankruptcy at the physics of weather swap which builds upon fabric brought in past chapters, giving the coed a large knowing of a few of the actual recommendations underlying this most crucial and topical topic. unlike many different books on atmospheric technology, the emphasis is at the underlying physics. Atmospheric purposes are built ordinarily within the difficulties given on the finish of every bankruptcy. The ebook is an important source for all scholars of atmospheric physics as a part of an atmospheric technological know-how, meteorology, physics, Earth technology, planetary technological know-how, or utilized arithmetic path.
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Extra info for An Introduction to Atmospheric Physics
Many of the concepts developed above for condensation of water vapour at the vapour– liquid transition can be applied also to sublimation at the vapour–ice transition. These include the saturation vapour pressure, saturation mixing ratio and the frost point: the temperature to which moist air must be cooled at constant pressure for sublimation to occur. 6). However, once saturation takes place, the calculation of the lapse rate following the parcel must be changed signiﬁcantly, because of the latent heat released.
2), for the vapour; here ρv is the vapour density and Rv is the speciﬁc gas constant for the vapour. Hence the Clausius–Clapeyron equation can be written in the more convenient form 7 See Bohren (1987) for a clear exposition of the misleading nature of the adjective saturated in this context: in particular for its suggestion that air can ‘only hold’ a certain amount of water vapour. 36) dT Rv T 2 where p and T refer to the values at the phase transition. These considerations apply to water vapour on its own, but can also be applied to water vapour in the presence of ‘air’, provided that p is replaced by the partial pressure of water vapour, traditionally denoted by the symbol e.
9. 10. 1) where p is the pressure, Vm is the volume of one mole, R is the universal gas constant and T is the absolute temperature. We can obtain the corresponding law for unit mass of air by noting that if the mass of one mole is Mm then the density ρ = Mm /Vm . 2) 20 Atmospheric thermodynamics where Ra ≡ R/Mm is the gas constant per unit mass of air. 2 Atmospheric composition Consider a small sample of air of volume V , temperature T and pressure p, containing a mixture of gases Gi (i = 1, 2, .