By Rudolf Arnheim
Given that its first booklet in 1954, this paintings has confirmed itself as a special vintage. It applies the ways and findings of the interval psychology to the learn of artwork; it descirbes the visible method that happens whilst humans create - or examine - works within the a variety of arts, and explains how they set up visible fabric in keeping with certain mental legislation. Artists, critics, paintings historicans, scholars, and normal readers have discovered it a hugely readable publication.
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Extra info for Art and Visual Perception: A Psychology of the Creative Eye
The examples in Fig ure 39 schematically illustrate the kind of result that is typically obtained. The samples give an idea of the impressive variety of reactions, which is due partly to individual differences and partly to such factors as differences in server in some indirect way. The observer gives a verbal description, or makes a drawing, or chooses from a number of patterns the one most resembling the figure he saw. None of these methods is very satisfactory, since there is no telling how much of the result is due to the primary experience itself and how much to the medium of communication.
Which are the easiest to describe in words? The subjective reactions explored in such experiments are only one aspect Figure 27 of our problem. We must also determine the objective simplicity of visual objects by analyzing their formal properties. Objective and subjective sim plicity do not always run parallel. A listener may find a sculpture simple be • • • • • cause he is unaware of its intricacy; or he may find it confusingly complex • • • because he has little acquaintance with even moderately elaborate structures.
Its causes must be sought in the nervous system. Of the exact nature of such physiological organization, next to nothing is known. By inference from what occurs in vision one can tell that the organization must involve field processes. Wolfgang Kohler has pointed out that field processes are frequently observed in physics and therefore can occur in the brain as well, since the nervous system belongs to the physical world. "As a familiar example," Kohler wrote, "take the stationary distribution of water current in a network of pipes.