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By Jane G. Landers

Crusing the tide of a tumultuous period of Atlantic revolutions, a notable team of African-born and African-descended members remodeled themselves from slaves into lively brokers in their lives and occasions. vast Prince Whitten, the black Seminole Abraham, and common Georges Biassou have been “Atlantic creoles,” Africans who stumbled on their technique to freedom by means of actively carrying out crucial political occasions in their day. those women and men of numerous ethnic backgrounds, who have been fluent in a number of languages and acquainted with African, American, and eu cultures, migrated around the new world’s imperial obstacles looking for freedom and a secure haven. but, formerly, their striking lives and exploits were hidden from posterity. via prodigious archival study, Jane Landers considerably alters our imaginative and prescient of the breadth and quantity of the Age of Revolution, and our realizing of its actors. while Africans within the Atlantic global are regularly obvious as destined for the slave marketplace and plantation exertions, Landers reconstructs the lives of specific people who controlled to maneuver purposefully via French, Spanish, and English colonies, and during Indian territory, within the volatile century among 1750 and 1850. cellular and adaptive, they shifted allegiances and identities reckoning on which political chief or software provided the best danger for freedom. even if combating for the King of Kongo, England, France, or Spain, or for the Muskogee and Seminole chiefs, their thirst for freedom helped to form the process the Atlantic revolutions and to complement the historical past of innovative lives in all instances. (20100430)

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Patriot General Nathanael Greene wrote that “the Whigs and Tories pursue one another with the most relentless fury, killing and destroying each other wherever they meet. €. ” Some of the British ofÂ�fiÂ�cers were equally dismayed. 54 Prince Whitten and his family lived through the worst of these cruelties. During the Loyalist occupation of the Carolina interior, Colonel John Watson camped at Mount Hope, one of the Cantey plantations north of the Santee River. After many months of hard fightÂ�ing, Patriot forces retook Monck’s Corner€in August 1781, and Francis Marion succeeded in expelling Colonel Watson from the Cantey plantation.

After many months of hard fightÂ�ing, Patriot forces retook Monck’s Corner€in August 1781, and Francis Marion succeeded in expelling Colonel Watson from the Cantey plantation. It remained the Swamp Fox’s headquarters until the war’s end. Correspondence of the opposing commanders, written from the Cantey plantation, describes the violence in St. 55 The eighÂ�teen months of terrible fightÂ�ing in St. John’s Parish disrupted agriculture as armies on both sides commandeered slaves and precious food supplies.

The chants of street hucksters selling oysters, shrimp, fruits, vegetables, baked goods, and other edibles from woven grass baskets balanced on their heads might also have reminded him of his home. As runaway adver- 2 20 3 African Choices in the Revolutionary South tisements noted, many of these black artisans and entrepreneurs would have borne familiar scarification patterns. 18 Heading down Bay Street, Prince and his new owner would have boarded one of the river boats that carried passengers and supplies up the Cooper River toward Whitten’s inland planÂ� tation.

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