By Roger G. Barry and Richard J. Chorley
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A ﬁctitious temperature between the station and sea-level has to be assumed and in mountain areas this commonly causes bias in the calculated mean sea-level pressure (see Note 4). The mean sea-level pressure (p0) can be estimated from the total mass of the atmosphere (M, the mean acceleration due to gravity (g0) and the mean earth radius (R): P0 = g0 (M/4 π RE2) where the denominator is the surface area of a spherical earth. 36 ϫ 106 m), we ﬁnd p0 = 105 kg ms–2 = 105 Nm–2, or 105 Pa. Hence the mean sea-level pressure is approximately 105 Pa or 1000 mb.
12 The spread of volcanic material in the atmosphere following major eruptions. (A) Approximate distributions of observed optical sky phenomena associated with the spread of Krakatoa volcanic dust between the eruption of 26 August and 30 November 1883. (B) The spread of the volcanic dust cloud following the main eruption of the El Chichón volcano in Mexico on 3 April 1982. Distributions on 5, 15 and 25 April are shown. Sources: Russell and Archibald (1888), Simkin and Fiske (1983), Rampino and Self (1984), Robock and Matson (1983).
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