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By J. H. W. G. Liebeschuetz

During this illuminating examine Liebeschuetz examines primary subject matters of overdue Antiquity: the barbarization of the Roman military and the interrelation of Church and secular govt. He discusses Alaric's Goths within the West, who have been handled as a federate regiment instead of a migrating tribe; how the civilian professionals at Constantinople maintained regulate over the principally German military in a clash that culminated within the Gainas emerging; and the way an analogous professionals got here into clash with John Chrysostom, the bishop of Constantinople, and had him deposed.

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89); in 360 (Amm. xx. 8. I); in 363 (Amm. xxiii. 2. 7); for Procopius (Amm. xxvi. IO. 3). 3 I I 32 Amm. xvii. I3. I9. Amm. xxiii. 2. 1. Oros. vii. 37· I2; Marcefl. Corn. a. 406, cf. LRE iii. 38 n. 6I; R. Grosse (1920) 8o-1. 34 Cf. LRE 199-200. The innovation must have seemed less drastic because some tribes outside the frontier did receive annona as if they were imperial troops, gentes annonariae (Nov. Theod. 24). g. Procop. vii. 33· 13 (Eruli). 35 Goths of Sueridus and Colias: Amm. xxxi. 6. I (377).

24. 228. Amm. xxxi. I 1. 2. Valens had intended to give them land in Thrace (Amm. xxxi. 4· 5). 30 Eunapius fr. 47 Blockley; cf. Zos. iv. 3 I. edonian cities pay money to Goths. 3l Jordanes Get. 267. 3 2 ND Or. v. 6I, vi. 61. E. Demougeot (I979) I 54 suggests that the Visi were provided by Goths that had been Fritigern's, the Tervingi by those of Athanaric. 3 3 No doubt a young Gothic noble could join the imperial army with a unit he had raised among settled Goths, like young Theodoric in 471: 'ascitis centis ex satellitibus patris et ex populo amatores sibi clientes' (Jordanes Get.

The Empire became more and more dependent on barbarian defenders. A relevant phenomenon was reluctance of landowners to see their tenants enrolled in the army. We have contemporary evidence for the successful efforts of the senators of Rome to prevent the conscription of their tenants at a time when Gildo, the rebellious commander in North Africa, was cutting off the food supply of Rome. 83 The ability of landowners to interfere with the government's effort to call up the peasantry was certainly much greater than under the Early Empire because a much larger proportion of land, 79 Press-gang: S.

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