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By J. N. Adams

This ebook bargains systematically with verbal exchange difficulties within the Roman international the place various languages except Latin and Greek have been spoken. How did the Romans converse with their matters within the remoter components of the Empire? What linguistic rules did they pursue? Differing varieties of bilingualism built, which had an important influence at the means the Romans and their matters suggestion, spoke and wrote. quite a lot of cultural, old and linguistic questions about the various advancements in bilingualism are addressed.

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He sent a copy of the commentarius on his consulship to Atticus, asserting that any errors were not intended, and perhaps expecting Atticus to point out any necessary corrections if there was anything un-Greek in it: Att.  in quo si quid erit quod homini Attico minus Graecum eruditumque uideatur . . )). These seem to be aggressively Latinate in their idiom: translators rendered Latin idioms literally into Greek, thereby producing a conspicuously peculiar Greek which may have been meant to impress Greeks by its Romanness.

And sub-´elite bilingualism Elite  it was said that he never studied Greek literature, and never used the Greek language for any matter of real importance, nicely brings out the distinction I am suggesting: he knew Greek, but disregarded Greek literature. ) to have been assigning a ‘low’ role to Greek, while reserving Latin for the ‘high’ functions. Secondly, it is not satisfactory to treat ‘Greek’ as a unity. The language of classical literature was at a far remove from the koine spoken in the Roman period, and some Romans might well have been fluent in the spoken language but relatively unversed in literary Greek.

Some of the stories in our sources are so circumstantial that they must be believed. Cicero undoubtedly addressed the senate in Syracuse in Greek, and Apollonius Molo must have spoken Greek in the Roman senate, thereby exercising the comprehension skills of the senators.  I quote Jocelyn (: ): ‘Deductions about the general level of Greek knowledge among upper-class Romans on the basis of Cicero’s correspondence with Atticus are . . dubious . . The tone of the prefaces to the philosophical dialogues suggests that, at the time these were written, Greek was a special accomplishment and that more men claimed than really possessed an effective knowledge of the language and its literature .

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