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The influence of changes in atmospheric composition on regional climate effect is readily demonstrable by a greenhouse For example, we are all from common experience. aware that in desert regions, temperatures drop rapidly after sunset, while in humid regions the day's heat lingers far into the night. In August, temperatures in Phoenix drop more than 30F between afternoon and the following dawn; in Washington, the corresponding cooling is less than 20F. Water vapor, like CO 2 absorbs and re-emits heat radiation , strongly, and a moist atmosphere acts as a thermal buffer between the Earth and space.

The from that in the interior of major continents. It is also reasonable to infer much smaller ratio of land to sea area in the southern hemisphere will be significant. Depending on how efficiently the atmosphere exchanges that the heat across the equator, a slower response to increasing C0 2 might be expected in the southern hemisphere. Future modeling studies should stress the regional nature of oceanic thermal inertia, and atmospheric energy transfer mechanisms, taking into account that the local response time is proportional to the ocean's thermal inertia and the rate at which energy is exchanged with the atmosphere.

Ice profound effects on climate in several ways. In winter, it allows the ocean to remain at the freezing point while the air temperature falls to ice has Principal Scientific Issues in much lower values. In summer, Modeling Studies 31 sea-ice melting locks the surface temperature Stouffer (1980) have noted the effect of Manabe and to the melting point. sea ice on the seasonal dependence of the sensitivity of climate to CO 2 They have shown how the existence of melting sea ice and the large thermal inertia of the ocean's mixed layer prevent the summer increases.

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